Cognitive reading perspective is predicated on two twin legs of comprehension contributing to reading comprehension. The one is language comprehension, which permits understanding representations of language as recognizable meaning. The other is decoding comprehension, which is the recognition of written code representations of words. Both comprehensions are necessary for reading comprehension. Decoding comprehension is deliberately learned beginning at school-age while language comprehension is situationally learned beginning from infancy, probably from birth or before. Therefore decoding comprehension is the harder of the two for school age children when they are learning reading comprehension in their first, home language. A disadvantage, then of cognitive reading perspective is that if the child has inhibitors that restrict decoding acquisition, such as some degree of dyslexia, decoding comprehension will be inhibited as will reading comprehension. An advantage is that half of the reading comprehension paradigm is already in place when learning reading comprehension is begun.
Managers can make a big difference for a firm when deciding whether or not they should be followers or pioneers. "Good generals make their luck by shaping the odds in their favor" (MacMillan). Making good decisions and acting upon them can help a firm, but in the end there are other factors that must be taken into account before making a final decision. One issue is that a firm must find a way to at least limit, if not prevent, imitation, by, for example, applying for patent(s), creating a product that is too complicated to reverse engineer, or taking control of resources that are important to the production of its product and any imitation.  The firm must also remember that first-mover advantages are not everlasting; eventually the competition will manage to take at least some piece of the market. Finally, a company must do its best to prevent incumbent inertia caused by self-righteousness, or possible changes in the market environment. One way to overcome such inertia is by expanding the product line. The advantages of having a wider product line are much easier to maintain compared to those of being a pioneer (Robinson).