Heterodox economics refers to economic theories and communities of economists that are in various ways an alternative to mainstream economics. It is a multi-level term that refers to a body of economic theories developed by economists who hold an irreverent position vis-à-vis mainstream economics and are typically rejected out of hand by the latter; to a community of heterodox economists whom identify themselves as such and embrace a pluralistic attitude towards heterodox theories without rejecting contestability and incommensurability among heterodox theories; and to the development of a coherent economic theory that draws upon various theoretical contributions by heterodox approaches which stand in contrast to mainstream theory. Thus, this introduction to heterodox economics is organized as follows: the first section outlines the emergence of heterodox economics in the sense of a body of heterodox theories; the second deals with heterodox economics as a pluralist community of heterodox economists; the third section situates heterodox economics relative to mainstream economics; and the fourth section delineates heterodox economics in terms of theory and policy.
Recent events have had a major environmental impact on the city. In July 2010, the explosion of two petroleum pipelines released 11,000 barrels of oil into the Yellow Sea , according to official statements. Rick Steiner, an American marine conservationist working with Greenpeace , says that the figure could be upwards of 400,000.  It was reported as the largest oil spill to occur in China,   and involved 2,000 firefighters.  The oil spill stretched for at least 50 square kilometres (19 sq mi). 800 fishing boats were mobilized for the cleanup.  The incident caused President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao to intervene, and Vice Premier Zhang Dejiang moved in to help direct the rescue work.  A researcher with the China Environmental Science Research Institute, said that "the impact on marine life and on humans – as the pollution enters the food chain – could last 10 years."  This has compounded aquatic pollution, affecting the city's fishing industry.