In many states throughout the United States , a judge is addressed as "Your Honor" or "Judge" when presiding over the court. "Judge" may be more commonly used by attorneys and staff, while either may be common with the plaintiff or the defendant. Notably, the Superior Court of Los Angeles County , the largest unified trial court in the United States, has a rule that the judge shall be addressed only as "Your Honor," and never as "Judge," "Judge (name)," "ma'am," or "sir."  This is somewhat unusual as "Judge" and "Judge (name)" or similar forms of address are considered appropriate and respectful in many other courts.
Judicial independence is paramount in the Canadian judicial system. The Canadian Constitution provides that the judiciary (the judges) is separate from and independent of the other two branches of government – the legislative and the executive . So, while the government’s role is to create laws for Canadian society, a judge’s job is to interpret those laws. It is important to remember that the courts do not make new laws; they make decisions based on existing laws that the government has passed.