Since dictionaries adopted the new spellings early on, there is no currently in-print, standard reference work available for traditional spellings. However, Theodor Ickler ( de ) , a Professor of German at the University of Erlangen , has produced a new dictionary that aims to meet the demands of simplification without the need to impose any new spellings. [ clarification needed ] It has not been reprinted since 2004. The commerce in used copies of the older Duden dictionaries has dwindled. As of the 2004 edition, the Duden dictionary includes the most recent changes proposed by the ministers of education.
The history of the tupilak goes back 5’000 years. In Greenlandic Inuit tradition, the tupilaq represents an avenging monster fabricated by a practitioner of Shamanism by using various objects such as animal parts (bone, skin, hair, etc.). The creature was given life by ritualistic chants, and then placed into the sea to seek and destroy a specific enemy. The tupilak attacked in the form of the creature it represented. It was a magical implement devoid of independent will and, thus, compelled to obey a person possessing insight into the supernatural world.
Two broad classes of methods can assess the economic value of environmental amenities and disamenities in the absence of explicit markets: behavioral (revealed preference) methods and attitudinal (stated preference) methods. Revealed preference methods seek natural experiments to estimate the demand function for an environmental good. Researchers look for cases where people face exogenous differences in environmental prices and the available quantity of goods; the relationship between price and quantity can be estimated by observing consumers’ choices in these situations. However, because the experiments are usually not randomized, the methodologies must control undesired variation using a combination of carefully choosing experiments and controlling for remaining problems with statistical techniques. Some revealed preference techniques lean more heavily on structural statistical models, and their attendant assumptions, to estimate values. Other techniques, often called quasi-experimental methods, lean more heavily on the assumption that policy interventions are truly exogenous and have created something close to a randomized experiment in a natural setting Both approaches have strengths and weaknesses Stated preference, or attitudinal, methods ask consumers how much they value environmental goods and services in carefully structured surveys. The approach has the appealing virtue that it can be used to value any environmental good or service as long as the good can be described. Because the approach is not tied to behavior, it can be used to value some goods and services that revealed preference methods cannot value. However, in practice, the survey methods are more difficult than they appear.